Empirical Examination of Trends in Indoor Air Quality in a Sample of Urban Indian Residences 

Rajat Gupta

Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK
Corresponding Author: rgupta@brookes.ac.uk

Yuanhong Zhao

Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK

Vishal Garg

Plaksha University, Mohali, India

Jyotirmay Mathur

Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India

Cite this article

Gupta, R., Zhao, Y., Garg, V., Mathur, J. (2024). Empirical Examination of Trends in Indoor Air Quality in a Sample of Urban Indian Residences. In Proceedings of Energise 2023- Lifestyle, Energy Efficiency, and Climate Action, pp 153–162, Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy. https://doi.org/10.62576/OJIM5461


  • Pioneering empirical study that combines time-series data on IAQ with contextual data on household characteristics.
  • Middle-income group residences were found to experience better IAQ than those with high and low incomes.
  • Daily mean indoor temperature was 4.8°C warmer than the recommended acceptable temperature prescribed by ISHRAE (Class C).
  • An online interactive dashboard (RIAQ) for visualising IAQ was developed for academics, policymakers, and industry to enable further research.


Indoor air quality (IAQ) in residences is a complex phenomenon determined by many factors. IAQ in homes has been studied far less than air quality outdoors, especially in urban India, where outdoor air pollution frequently exceeds recommended levels. This paper empirically examines daily trends and variations in IAQ parameters measured across a sample of eight urban Indian residences located in three cities, representing the warm-humid and composite climates. Using internet-enabled Airveda devices, time-series monitoring data at 30’ intervals were gathered for indoor temperature, relative humidity, CO2, PM2.5, and PM10 for 10 days during the monsoon season when air conditioning was prevalent. Contextual data about the physical and household characteristics of residences were gathered using household surveys. The results were compared against the recommended ISHRAE and WHO standards to observe any deviations. Given the paucity of empirical data, an online interactive dashboard (RIAQ) for visualising IAQ was developed for academics, policymakers, and industry to enable further research.


Indoor Air Quality, Particulate Matter, Residences, Monitoring, Visualization


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